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При создании новых алгоритмов наша команда учёных проводит глобальные исследования, которые документируются в научных изданиях. Кроме того, мы используем для работы научные труды наших коллег по всему миру.
Playing a P300-BCI VR game based leads to changes in cognitive function of healthy adults
Playing a P300-BCI VR game based leads to changes in cognitive function of healthy adults

Matvey Bulat, Alexandra Karpman, Alina Samokhina, Alexander Panov


In this paper, we present the results of a study to determine the effect of the p-300 BCI based Virtual Reality game on the cognitive functions of healthy human subjects. This study is a part of on-going research related to evaluation of the the long-term effect of P300 training in Virtual Reality surrounding (VR game) on the cognitive performance of the young healthy population. A comparison of results between 3 groups of participants (15 people each) revealed the progressing difference in cognitive assessment for experimental group played P300-BCI VR game, showing the positive increase in flanker and conjunction visual search task performance associated with selective attention and mental inhibition. We show that the effect is due to the use of P300-BCI paradigm. Our results suggest that P300 BCI games combined with virtual reality can not only be used for rehabilitation in patients with slight mental disorders or elderly, but for increasing some cognitive functions in healthy subjects, giving an additional improvement in learning in case of combination with possible educational tasks or used for attention training.
Raccoons vs Demons: multiclass labeled P300 dataset
Raccoons vs Demons: multiclass labeled P300 dataset

V. Goncharenko
, R. Grigoryan, A. Samokhina

We publish dataset of visual P300 BCI performed in Virtual Reality (VR) game Raccoons versus Demons (RvD). Data contains reach labels incorporating information about stimulus chosen enabling us to estimate model's confidence at each stimulus prediction stage.
A P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Improving Attention
A P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface for Improving Attention

Mahnaz Arvaneh
, Ian H. Robertson and Tomas E. Ward

A Brain-computer Interface (BCI) can be used as a neurofeedback training tool to improve cognitive performance. BCIs aim to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the conventional neurofeedback methods by focusing on the self-regulation of individualized neuromarkers rather than generic ones in a graphically appealing training environment. In this work, for the first time, we have modified a widely used P300-based speller BCI and used it as an engaging neurofeedack training game to enhance P300. According to the user's performance the game becomes more difficult in an adaptive manner, requiring the generation of a larger and stronger P300 (i.e., in terms of total energy) in response to target stimuli. Since the P300 is generated naturally without conscious effort in response to a target trial, unlike many rhythm-based neurofeedback tools, the ability to control the proposed P300-based neurofeedback training is obtained after a short calibration without undergoing tedious trial and error sessions. The performance of the proposed neurofeedback training was evaluated over a short time scale (approximately 30 min training) using 28 young adult participants who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. In summary, our results show that the proposed P300-based BCI neurofeedback training yielded a significant enhancement in the ERP components of the target trials (i.e., 150–550 ms after the onset of stimuli which includes P300) as well as attenuation in the corresponding ERP components of the non-target trials. In addition, more centro-parietal alpha suppression was observed in the experimental group during the neurofeedback training as well as a post-training spatial attention task. Interestingly, a significant improvement in the response time of a spatial attention task performed immediately after the neurofeedback training was observed in the experimental group. This paper, as a proof-of-concept study, suggests that the proposed neurofeedback training tool is a promising tool for improving attention particularly for those who are at risk of attention deficiency.
BCI inside a virtual reality classroom: a potential training tool for attention
BCI inside a virtual reality classroom: a potential training tool for attention

Darius A. Rohani
& Sadasivan Puthusserypady

A growing population is diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and are currently being treated with psychostimulants. Brain Computer Interface (BCI) is a method of communicating with an external program or device based on measured electrical signals from the brain. A particular brain signal, the P300 potential, can be measured about 300 ms after a voluntary cognitive involvement to external stimuli. By utilizing the P300 potential, we have designed a BCI- assisted exercising tool targeting attention enhancement within an immersive 3D virtual reality (VR) classroom.
Neural Signals Evoked by Stimuli of Increasing Social Scene Complexity Are Detectable at the Single-Trial Level and Right Lateralized
Neural Signals Evoked by Stimuli of Increasing Social Scene Complexity Are Detectable at the Single-Trial Level and Right Lateralized

Carlos P. Amaral, Marco A. Simões , Miguel S. Castelo-Branco

Classification of neural signals at the single-trial level and the study of their relevance in affective and cognitive neuroscience are still in their infancy. Here we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of conditions of increasing social scene complexity using 3D human models as targets of attention, which may also be important in autism research. Challenging single-trial statistical classification of EEG neural signals was attempted for detection of oddball stimuli with increasing social scene complexity.
A Comparison of the Attentional Effects of Single-Session Mindfulness Meditation and Fp-HEG Neurofeedback in Novices
A Comparison of the Attentional Effects of Single-Session Mindfulness Meditation and Fp-HEG Neurofeedback in Novices

Constantine Lai
, Benjamin MacNeil & Paul Frewen

The efficacy of mindfulness meditation (MM) relative to prefrontal hemoencephalography (Fp-HEG) neurofeedback (NFB) for enhancing attentional functioning and increasing Fp-HEG has not been studied.
A Pilot Study of a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Obesity: CNS Modification by N.I.R. H.E.G. Neurofeedback
A Pilot Study of a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Obesity: CNS Modification by N.I.R. H.E.G. Neurofeedback

Ruth Percik
, Jenny Cina, Batel Even, Asaf Gitler, Diklah Geva, Lior Seluk, Abigail Livny

Background & aims: Despite the thorough mapping of brain pathways involved in eating behavior, no treatment aimed at modulating eating dysregulation from its neurocognitive root has been established yet. We aimed to evaluate the effect of N.I.R. H.E.G. (Near Infra-Red Hemoencephalography) neurofeedback training on appetite control, weight and food-related brain activity.

Results: Our study group demonstrated a positive trend of increased self-control and inhibition related to food behavior, reduced weight and increased activation during an fMRI response-inhibition task (Go-No-Go - GNG) in the predefined region of interest (ROI): superior orbitofrontal cortex (sOFC).
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnosis: An Activation-Executive Model
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnosis: An Activation-Executive Model

Celestino Rodríguez
, Paloma González-Castro, Marisol Cueli, Debora Areces, and Julio A. González-Pienda

Attention deficit with, or without, hyperactivity and impulsivity (ADHD) is categorized as neuro-developmental disorder. ADHD is a common disorder in childhood and one of the most frequent conditions affecting school ages.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, differential diagnosis with blood oxygenation, beta/theta ratio, and attention measures
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, differential diagnosis with blood oxygenation, beta/theta ratio, and attention measures

PalomaGonzález-Castro
, Celestino Rodríguez, Ángel López, Marisol Cueli, Luis Álvarez

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the disorders causing the greatest impact, conditioning academic learning, quality of concentration, and capacity for self-regulation and control. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV-TR) establishes the most commonly accepted criteria for diagnosis (Inattentive: ADHD-I, Hyperactive/impulsive: ADHD-HI, and Combined: ADHD-C), but currently, diverse studies disagree about whether to address it as a continuum with different degrees of intensity (subtype structure) or as specific disorders (counterposed profiles). Prior research has tested the hypothesis of differential categories with performance measures and cortical activation. The goal proposed herein is to confirm these results, incorporating a new measure, near-infrared hemoencefalography (nir-HEG), in order to control cortical activation through levels of blood oxygenation. For this purpose, we used a sample of 205 children between 8 and 13 years (105 control group, 28 with ADHD-I, 35 with ADHD-HI, and 37 with ADHD-C), administering a continuous performance test (TOVA), quantified electroencephalogram (Q-EEG), and nir-HEG. Results reflect the counterposed profiles hypothesis instead of the degrees of intensity, although the latter is more habitual and generalized.
Biofeedback-based training for stress management in daily hassles: an intervention study
Biofeedback-based training for stress management in daily hassles: an intervention study

Yuka Kotozaki
, Hikaru Takeuchi, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Yuki Yamamoto, Takamitsu Shinada, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kei Takahashi, Yasuyuki Taki, Takeshi Ogino, Masashi Kiguchi and Ryuta Kawashima


The day-to-day causes of stress are called daily hassles. Daily hassles are correlated with ill health. Biofeedback (BF) is one of the tools used for acquiring stress-coping skills. However, the anatomical correlates of the effects of BF with long training periods remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate this.
Clinical Efficacy of a New Automated Hemoencephalographic Neurofeedback Protocol
Clinical Efficacy of a New Automated Hemoencephalographic Neurofeedback Protocol

Alvaro Machado Dias
, Adrian Machado Van Deusen, Eduardo Oda, Mariana Rodrigues Bonfim

Among the ongoing attempts to enhance cognitive performance, an emergent and yet underrepresented venue is brought by hemoencefalographic neurofeedback (HEG). This paper presents three related advances in HEG neurofeedback for cognitive enhancement: a) a new HEG protocol for cognitive enhancement, as well as b) the results of independent measures of biological efficacy (EEG brain maps) extracted in three phases, during a one year follow up case study; c) the results of the first controlled clinical trial of HEG, designed to assess the efficacy of the technique for cognitive enhancement of an adult and neurologically intact population. The new protocol was developed in the environment of a software that organizes digital signal algorithms in a flowchart format. Brain maps were produced through 10 brain recordings. The clinical trial used a working memory test as its independent measure of achievement. The main conclusion of this study is that the technique appears to be clinically promising. Approaches to cognitive performance from a metabolic viewpoint should be explored further. However, it is particularly important to note that, to our knowledge, this is the world's first controlled clinical study on the matter and it is still early for an ultimate evaluation of the technique.
Clinical usefulness of hemoencephalography beyond the neurofeedback
Clinical usefulness of hemoencephalography beyond the neurofeedback

Mireia Serra-Sala
, Carme Timoneda-Gallart and Frederic Pérez-Álvarez

Hemoencephalography (HEG) is an emerging procedure for clinical application in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other disorders, regardless of age. It is available to any research group for its relative simplicity and low cost and is a useful tool for assessing prefrontal-dependent functions. Older teenagers pose peculiarities in the prefrontal maturation, and we aim to establish HEG patterns that might have clinical applicability.
Feasibility of NIRS-based Neurofeedback Training in Social Anxiety Disorder: Behavioral and Neural Correlates
Feasibility of NIRS-based Neurofeedback Training in Social Anxiety Disorder: Behavioral and Neural Correlates

Ann-Christin S Kimmig
, Thomas Dresler, Justin Hudak, Florian B Haeussinger, Dirk Wildgruber, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Benjamin Kreifelts


Attention biases towards threat signals have been linked to the etiology and symptomatology of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) may contribute to attention biases in anxious individuals.
The potential of functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based neurofeedback -a systematic review and recommendations for best practice
The potential of functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based neurofeedback -a systematic review and recommendations for best practice

Simon Huldreich Kohl
, David M.A. Mehler, Michael Lührs, Robert T. Thibault

Background: The effects of electroencephalography (EEG)- and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-neurofeedback on brain-activation, and behaviors have been studied extensively in the past. More recently, researchers have begun to investigate the effects of functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based neurofeedback (fNIRS-neurofeedback). FNIRS is a functional neuroimaging technique based on brain hemodynamics, which is easy to use, portable, inexpensive and has reduced sensitivity to movement artifacts.
Hemoencephalography Self-Regulation Training and Its Impact on Cognition: A Study With Schizophrenia and Healthy Participants
Hemoencephalography Self-Regulation Training and Its Impact on Cognition: A Study With Schizophrenia and Healthy Participants

J S Gomes
, D V Ducos, A Gadelha, B B Ortiz, A M Van Deusen, H T Akiba, L S P Guimaraes, Q Cordeiro, A P Trevizol, A Lacerda, A M Dias

Background: Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are strongly correlated to functional outcome and recovery rates, with no pharmacological agent approved for its treatment. Neurofeedback has emerged as a non-pharmacological approach to enhance neuroplasticity, which consists in inducing voluntary control of brain responses through operant conditioning.

Results: We found a group∗time interaction for HEG-NFBK performance in the left hemisphere sites (F7 an Fp1) and a near-to-significant in the right frontotemporal region (F8), with no group differences and a significant time effect. Most of cognitive domains improved after intervention, including information processing speed, attention processing, working memory, executive functioning, verbal and visual learning. No group∗time interaction was found. Results suggest that both groups benefit from HEG-NFBK training regardless of cognitive differences at baseline. No significant time effects were found for Calgary and PANSS total scale and subscales (positive, negative neither general).

Insights in eeg versus heg and rt-fmri neuro feedback training for cognition enhancement
Insights in eeg versus heg and rt-fmri neuro feedback training for cognition enhancement


Antonia Plerou; Panagiotis Vlamos

Innovative research technologies in the neurosciences have remarkably improved the perception of brain structure and function. The use of several neurofeedback training techniques is broadly used for the memory and cognition augmentation as well as for several learning difficulties and AHDD rehabilitation. Author's objective is to review cognitive enhancement techniques with the use of brain imaging intervention methods as well to evaluate the effects of these methods in the educational process. The efficiency and limitations of neurofeedback training with the use of EEG brain imaging, HEG scanning, namely NIR and PIR method and fMRI scan including rt-fMRI brain scanning technique are also discussed. Moreover, technical and clinical details of several neurofeedback treatment approaches were also taken into consideration

Intentional Increase of Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Using Hemoencephalography (HEG): An Efficient Brain Exercise Therapy
Intentional Increase of Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Using Hemoencephalography (HEG): An Efficient Brain Exercise Therapy

Hershel Toomim
, William Mize, Paul C. Kwong, Marjorie Toomim

Intentional enhancement of regional cerebral blood oxygenation (rCBO2) in specific cerebral locations was studied as a brain exercise. A review of literature showed the effect of brain exercise on brain physiology. Hemoencephalography (HEG), a graphic analog of brain blood flow of oxygenated hemoglobin indicated by non-invasive infrared spectroscopy, was used to guide intentionally increasing rCBO2. A musical note and visual graphic keyed to changes in cortical blood oxygenation was provided to the participant. A primary aim of this study was to demonstrate the capacity of subjects with brain disorders to increase oxygenation of selected brain tissue using HEG and test the hypothesis that multiple repetitions of these brain exercises improved sustained attention measured with a continuous performance test. The impulsivity score for subjects in the exercise group was in the normal range after 10 sessions. In a small set of subjects, low arousal SPECT images showed increased vascularity after 30 half-hour sessions of intentional enhancement of local blood oxygenation.
Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Neurofeedback as a Treatment for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-a Pilot Study
Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Neurofeedback as a Treatment for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-a Pilot Study

Anna-Maria Marx
, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Adrian Furdea, Martin Holtmann, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Aribert Rothenberger, Holger Gevensleben, Christine M Freitag, Yvonne Fuchsenberger, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ute Strehl

Abstract In this pilot study near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) neurofeedback was investigated as a new method for the treatment of Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD was measured and fed back. 12 sessions of NIRS-neurofeedback were compared to the intermediate outcome after 12 sessions of EEG-neurofeedback (slow cortical potentials, SCP) and 12 sessions of EMG-feedback (muscular activity of left and right musculus supraspinatus). The task was either to increase or decrease hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (NIRS), to produce positive or negative shifts of SCP (EEG) or to increase or decrease muscular activity (EMG). In each group nine children with ADHD, aged 7-10 years, took part. Changes in parents' ratings of ADHD symptoms were assessed before and after the 12 sessions and compared within and between groups. For the NIRS-group additional teachers' ratings of ADHD symptoms, parents' and teachers' ratings of associated behavioral symptoms, childrens' self reports on quality of life and a computer based attention task were conducted before, 4 weeks and 6 months after training. As primary outcome, ADHD symptoms decreased significantly 4 weeks and 6 months after the NIRS training, according to parents' ratings. In teachers' ratings of ADHD symptoms there was a significant reduction 4 weeks after the training.
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy based Neurofeedback of Prefrontal Cortex Activity: A Proof-of-Concept Study
Near-Infrared Spectroscopy based Neurofeedback of Prefrontal Cortex Activity: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Beatrix Barth
, Ute Strehl, Andreas J. Fallgatter and Ann-Christine Ehlis

Neurofeedback is a promising tool for treatment and rehabilitation of several patient groups. In this proof of principle study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based neurofeedback of frontal cortical areas was investigated in healthy adults. Main aims were the assessment of learning, the effects on performance in a working memory (n-back) task and the impact of applied strategies on regulation. 13 healthy participants underwent eight sessions of NIRS based neurofeedback within 2 weeks to learn to voluntarily up-regulate hemodynamic activity in prefrontal areas. An n-back task in pre-/post measurements was used to monitor neurocognitive changes. Mean oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) amplitudes over the course of the sessions as well as during the n-back task were evaluated. 12 out of 13 participants were able to regulate their frontal hemodynamic response via NIRS neurofeedback. However, no systematic learning effects were observed in frontal O2Hb amplitudes over the training course in our healthy sample. We found an impact of applied strategies in only 5 out of 13 subjects. Regarding the n-back task, neurofeedback appeared to induce more focused and specific brain activation compared to pre-training measurement. NIRS based neurofeedback is a feasible and potentially effective method, with an impact on activation patterns in a working memory task. Ceiling effects might explain the lack of a systematic learning pattern in healthy subjects. Clinical studies are needed to show effects in patients exhibiting pathological deviations in prefrontal function.
Trainability of Hemodynamic Parameters: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based Neurofeedback Study
Trainability of Hemodynamic Parameters: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Based Neurofeedback Study

Silvia Erika Kober
, Vanessa Hinterleitner, Günther Bauernfeind, Christa Neuper, Guilherme Wood

We investigated the trainability of the hemodynamic response as assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during one neurofeedback (NF) session. Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to four different groups that tried to either increase or decrease oxygenated (oxy-Hb) or deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) over the inferior frontal gyrus during imagery of swallowing movements. Deoxy-Hb could be successfully up-regulated while oxy-Hb could be successfully down-regulated during NF. Participants were not able to down-regulate deoxy-Hb or to up-regulate oxy-Hb. These results show that the natural course of oxy- and deoxy-Hb during movement imagery can be reinforced by providing real-time feedback of the corresponding NIRS parameter since deoxy-Hb generally increases and oxy-Hb decreases during imagery of swallowing. Furthermore, signal-to-noise ratio of deoxy-Hb but not of oxy-Hb improved during training. Our results provide new insights into the trainability of the hemodynamic response as assessed with NIRS and have an impact on the application of NIRS-based real-time feedback.
Passive Infrared Hemoencephalography: Four Years and 100 Migraines
Passive Infrared Hemoencephalography: Four Years and 100 Migraines

Jeffrey A Carmen


One hundred migraine sufferers were treated using passive Infrared Hemoencephalography (pIR HEG) over a period of four years. All subjects met the criteria for at least one of the catego-ries set forth in the International Headache Society (IHS, 1988) classifi-cation criteria for headache disorders for primary migraine. Methods. Subjects were treated using the pIR HEG system in 30-minute sessions. A central forehead placement (approximately Fpz) was used for the sensor assembly for all subjects. Changes in headache pat-terns were examined. After two years, an infrared video imaging system was added to the data collection process and was available for 61 of the 100 subjects. Infrared forehead images were captured at the start and end of each session to examine changes in prefrontal cortical brain activity. Results. Most of the subjects improved control over their migraine headaches. Over 90% of those subjects who completed at least six ses-sions reported significant improvements in migraine activity.
Task-Switching Training and Transfer
Age-Related Effects on Late ERP Components
Task-Switching Training and Transfer. Age-Related Effects on Late ERP Components.

Zsófia Anna Gaál, István Czigler

We used task-switching (TS) paradigms to study how cognitive training can compensate age-related cognitive decline. Thirty-nine young (age span: 18–25 years) and 40 older (age span: 60–75 years) women were assigned to training and control groups. The training group received 8 one-hour long cognitive training sessions in which the difficulty level of TS was individually adjusted. The other half of the sample did not receive any intervention. The reference task was an informatively cued TS paradigm with nogo stimuli. Performance was measured on reference, near-transfer, and far-transfer tasks by behavioral indicators and event-related potentials (ERPs) before training, 1 month after pretraining, and in case of older adults, 1 year later. The results showed that young adults had better pretraining performance. The reference task was too difficult for older adults to form appropriate representations as indicated by the behavioral data and the lack of P3b components. But after training older adults reached the level of performance of young participants, and accordingly, P3b emerged after both the cue and the target. Training gain was observed also in near-transfer tasks, and partly in far-transfer tasks; working memory and executive functions did not improve, but we found improvement in alerting and orienting networks, and in the execution of variants of TS paradigms. Behavioral and ERP changes remained preserved even after 1 year. These findings suggest that with an appropriate training procedure older adults can reach the level of performance seen in young adults and these changes persist for a long period. The training also affects the unpracticed tasks, but the transfer depends on the extent of task similarities.
Cognitive training and selective attention in the aging brain: An electrophysiological study
Cognitive training and selective attention in the aging brain: An electrophysiological study

Jennifer L.O'Briena, Jerri D.Edwards, Nathan D.Maxfield, Carol L.Peronto, Victoria A.Williams, Jennifer J.Liste

• The amplitudes of the P3b and N2pc components increased for older adults after behavioral speed of processing (SOP) training.
• This may be associated with enhancement of allocation and capacity of selective attention due to cognitive training.
• The results can be further useful in determining the underlying mechanisms of cognitive training gains and transfer.
ERP and Behavioral Effects of Physical and Cognitive Training on Working Memory in Aging: A Randomized Controlled Study
ERP and Behavioral Effects of Physical and Cognitive Training on Working Memory in Aging: A Randomized Controlled Study

Patrick D. Gajewski and Michael Falkenstein

Working memory (WM) performance decreases with age. A promising method to improve WM is physical or cognitive training. The present randomized controlled study is aimed at evaluating the effects of different training methods on WM. A sample of 141 healthy older adults (mean age 70 years) was assigned to one of four groups: physical training, cognitive training, a social control group, and a no-contact control group. The participants trained for four months. Before and after the training, n-back task during an EEG recording was applied. The results show that cognitive training enhanced the target detection rate in the 2-back task. This was corroborated by an increased number of repeated digits in the backward digit-span test but not in other memory tests. The improvement of WM was supported by an increased P3a prior to a correct target and an increased P3b both in nontarget and target trials. No ERP effects in the physical and no-contact control groups were found, while a reduction of P3a and P3b was found in the social control group. Thus, cognitive training enhances frontal and parietal processing related to the maintenance of a stored stimulus for subsequent matching with an upcoming stimulus and increases allocation of cognitive resources. These results indicate that multidomain cognitive training may increase WM capacity and neuronal activity in older age.
P300 correlates with learning & memory abilities and fluid intelligence
P300 correlates with learning & memory abilities and fluid intelligence

Hafeez Ullah Amin, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Weng-Tink Chooi and Muhammad Hussain

Background: Educational psychology research has linked fluid intelligence with learning and memory abilities and neuroimaging studies have specifically associated fluid intelligence with event related potentials (ERPs). The objective of this study is to find the relationship of ERPs with learning and memory recall and predict the memory recall score using P300 (P3) component. Method: A sample of thirty-four healthy subjects between twenty and thirty years of age was selected to perform three tasks: (1) Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) test to assess fluid intelligence; (2) learning and memory task to assess learning ability and memory recall; and (3) the visual oddball task to assess brain-evoked potentials. These subjects were divided into High Ability (HA) and Low Ability (LA) groups based on their RAPM scores. A multiple regression analysis was used to predict the learning & memory recall and fluid intelligence using P3 amplitude and latency. Results: Behavioral results demonstrated that the HA group learned and recalled 10.89 % more information than did the LA group. ERP results clearly showed that the P3 amplitude of the HA group was relatively larger than that observed in the LA group for both the central and parietal regions of the cerebrum; particularly during the 300–400 ms time window. In addition, a shorter latency for the P3 component was observed at Pz site for the HA group compared to the LA group. These findings agree with previous educational psychology and neuroimaging studies which reported an association between ERPs and fluid intelligence as well as learning performance. Conclusion: These results also suggest that the P3 component is associated with individual differences in learning and memory recall and further indicate that P3 amplitude might be used as a supporting factor in standard psychometric tests to assess an individual's learning & memory recall ability; particularly in educational institutions to aid in the predictability of academic skills.
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